Johann- Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746 – 1827) -School for All
“I think the figure of Pestalozzi imposes itself as the most brilliant in the history of pedagogy, because his ideas are based on a lifetime dedicated to finding solutions to free peasants from misery. and beggars whom he knew from a childhood and whose dramas he would never stop sharing throughout his life ” Lucinda Atalaya (Founder of the Pestalozzi School in Lisbon).
The origin of the so-called Pestalozzi method lies in the effects of the French Invasions, which in 1798 invade the Swiss cantons, leaving a trail of destruction and poverty. Following the invasion of the incorporation of men into armies, many children had been orphaned and wandering the land aimlessly. Pestalozzi gathered many of these children in an abandoned convent and decided to educate them.
Although after a few years the convent was requested to hospital, Pestalozzi argues that the social change that the country is going through requires a “pedagogical revolution”, associated teaching to work and proposing an education for all. Later it will continue its work in another institution. The introduction of affect in school and in the learning process is one of Pestalozzi’s contributions to motivational theory in education.
The so-called “pestalozzi” starts from the observation of the things of the world. We must feel and hear the world. Bonding with the Surrounding The intuition of listening leads to explanation by words, drawings, or other expressions. Children have to acquire three dimensions; the name, form and number. In the role of learning, mothers play a fundamental role for Pestalozzi, so they need to be guided by the school. In his “Manuel for Mothers” he develops three elements that mothers, as natural educators, should insist on with their children: language development through the habit of expressing oneself with precision; the development of intelligence by the ability to distinguish objects in their different parts, the qualities and functions of these objects and their properties; and the knowledge of oneself through the recognition of what is physically, what one can achieve through one’s faculties, and what one needs, what one needs, what one owes one’s duties.
At Pestalozzi School the child seeks information for himself, is active in building his learning process. In Pestalozzi, there are no prizes or punishments. At the end of each work week, each student makes a group analysis of the work of the week.